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汇编语言的高级语言特性

时间:2007-05-01

现在写汇编语言,就象写结构化的高级语言一样,非常的方便。不信?你看看下面写的小程序就知道啦,没有程序跳转,完全的结构化设计。最后还附有 Glow Glove 总结的小篇文章,供大家学习参考。

;-------------------------------------------------------
;例:计算一个数据的阶乘
;若结果较小,可放在 EAX 寄存器
;若结果较小,可放在 EDX:EAX 寄存器
;文件名:7.asm

.386
.model flat,stdcall
option casemap:none

include windows.inc

include masm32.inc
include kernel32.inc
include user32.inc

includelib masm32.lib
includelib kernel32.lib
includelib user32.lib

.data?
CharOut db 100 dup(?)

.code

OutEdxEax PROTO :DWORD ;将EDX:EAX中的数据转换成十进制输出字符串形式!

OutEdxEax proc lpString ;比如:EDX=0,EAX=01234567H,则转换后的字符串为:
-> '19088743',0
mov edi,lpString ;指向存放结果的地址
mov esi,lpString

mov ecx,10 ;转换成十进制
.while eax!=0 || edx!=0
push eax 
mov eax,edx
xor edx,edx
div ecx
mov ebx,eax
pop eax
div ecx
add dl,'0' 
mov [edi],dl ;存放结果
inc edi
mov edx,ebx
.endw

mov BYTE ptr [edi],0;字符串以0为结尾
dec edi

.while edi>esi ;结果前变后,后变前!
mov al,[esi]
xchg al,[edi]
mov [esi],al
inc esi
dec edi
.endw
ret
OutEdxEax endp

start: ;程序开始
xor eax,eax ;存放结果的寄存器EDX:EAX=1
xor edx,edx
inc eax
mov ecx,20 ;计算20的阶乘。不能大于20,否则会溢出,结果将不再正确!
.while ecx>0
.if edx==0 ;结果在EAX中
mul ecx
.else ;结果在EDX:EAX中
push edx
mul ecx
pop ebx
push eax
push edx
mov eax,ecx
mul ebx
pop edx
add edx,eax
pop eax
.endif
dec ecx
.endw

.if edx==0 ;结果在EAX中
invoke dw2a,eax,addr CharOut
.else ;结果在EDX:EAX中
invoke OutEdxEax,addr CharOut ;用我们自己的程序转换!
.endif

invoke StdOut,addr CharOut ;控制台输出结果
invoke ExitProcess,NULL ;结束程序
end start
----------------------------------------------------------------
生成7.exe的详细操作过程

D:\MASM7>ml /coff /I include 7.asm /link /subsystem:console /libpath:lib
Microsoft (R) Macro Assembler Version 6.14.8444
Copyright (C) Microsoft Corp 1981-1997. All rights reserved.

Assembling: 7.asm
Microsoft (R) Incremental Linker Version 5.12.8078
Copyright (C) Microsoft Corp 1992-1998. All rights reserved.

/subsystem:console /libpath:lib
"7.obj"
"/OUT:7.exe"

D:\MASM7>7
2432902008176640000
D:\MASM7>_
---------------------------------------------------------------------
用W32dasm反编译后的结果,大家可看看“汇编语言”是怎样翻译成“机器语言”的。

Program Entry Point = 00401042 (7.exe File Offset:00001642)

:00401000 55 push ebp
:00401001 8BEC mov ebp, esp
:00401003 8B7D08 mov edi, dword ptr [ebp+08]
:00401006 8B7508 mov esi, dword ptr [ebp+08]
:00401009 B90A000000 mov ecx, 0000000A
:0040100E EB14 jmp 00401024

* Referenced by a (U)nconditional or (C)onditional Jump at Addresses:
|:00401026(C), :0040102A(C)
|
:00401010 50 push eax
:00401011 8BC2 mov eax, edx
:00401013 33D2 xor edx, edx
:00401015 F7F1 div ecx
:00401017 8BD8 mov ebx, eax
:00401019 58 pop eax
:0040101A F7F1 div ecx
:0040101C 80C230 add dl, 30
:0040101F 8817 mov byte ptr [edi], dl
:00401021 47 inc edi
:00401022 8BD3 mov edx, ebx

* Referenced by a (U)nconditional or (C)onditional Jump at Address:
|:0040100E(U)
|
:00401024 0BC0 or eax, eax
:00401026 75E8 jne 00401010
:00401028 0BD2 or edx, edx
:0040102A 75E4 jne 00401010
:0040102C C60700 mov byte ptr [edi], 00
:0040102F 4F dec edi
:00401030 EB08 jmp 0040103A

* Referenced by a (U)nconditional or (C)onditional Jump at Address:
|:0040103C(C)
|
:00401032 8A06 mov al, byte ptr [esi]
:00401034 8607 xchg byte ptr [edi], al
:00401036 8806 mov byte ptr [esi], al
:00401038 46 inc esi
:00401039 4F dec edi

* Referenced by a (U)nconditional or (C)onditional Jump at Address:
|:00401030(U)
|
:0040103A 3BFE cmp edi, esi
:0040103C 77F4 ja 00401032
:0040103E C9 leave
:0040103F C20400 ret 0004

//******************** Program Entry Point ********
:00401042 33C0 xor eax, eax
:00401044 33D2 xor edx, edx
:00401046 40 inc eax
:00401047 B914000000 mov ecx, 00000014
:0040104C EB17 jmp 00401065

* Referenced by a (U)nconditional or (C)onditional Jump at Address:
|:00401068(C)
|
:0040104E 0BD2 or edx, edx
:00401050 7504 jne 00401056
:00401052 F7E1 mul ecx
:00401054 EB0E jmp 00401064

* Referenced by a (U)nconditional or (C)onditional Jump at Address:
|:00401050(C)
|
:00401056 52 push edx
:00401057 F7E1 mul ecx
:00401059 5B pop ebx
:0040105A 50 push eax
:0040105B 52 push edx
:0040105C 8BC1 mov eax, ecx
:0040105E F7E3 mul ebx
:00401060 5A pop edx
:00401061 03D0 add edx, eax
:00401063 58 pop eax

* Referenced by a (U)nconditional or (C)onditional Jump at Address:
|:00401054(U)
|
:00401064 49 dec ecx

* Referenced by a (U)nconditional or (C)onditional Jump at Address:
|:0040104C(U)
|
:00401065 83F900 cmp ecx, 00000000
:00401068 77E4 ja 0040104E
:0040106A 0BD2 or edx, edx
:0040106C 750D jne 0040107B
:0040106E 6804304000 push 00403004
:00401073 50 push eax
:00401074 E81F000000 call 00401098
:00401079 EB0A jmp 00401085

* Referenced by a (U)nconditional or (C)onditional Jump at Address:
|:0040106C(C)
|
:0040107B 6804304000 push 00403004
:00401080 E87BFFFFFF call 00401000

* Referenced by a (U)nconditional or (C)onditional Jump at Address:
|:00401079(U)
|
:00401085 6804304000 push 00403004
:0040108A E825000000 call 004010B4
:0040108F 6A00 push 00000000

* Reference To: KERNEL32.ExitProcess, Ord:0075h
|
:00401091 E88E000000 Call 00401124
:00401096 CC int 03
:00401097 CC int 03

* Referenced by a CALL at Address:
|:00401074 
|
:00401098 55 push ebp
:00401099 8BEC mov ebp, esp
:0040109B FF7508 push [ebp+08]

* Possible StringData Ref from Data Obj ->"%lu"
|
:0040109E 6800304000 push 00403000
:004010A3 FF750C push [ebp+0C]

* Reference To: USER32.wsprintfA, Ord:02A5h
|
:004010A6 E88B000000 Call 00401136
:004010AB 83C40C add esp, 0000000C
:004010AE C9 leave
:004010AF C20800 ret 0008

:004010B2 CC int 03
:004010B3 CC int 03

* Referenced by a CALL at Address:
|:0040108A 
|
:004010B4 55 push ebp
:004010B5 8BEC mov ebp, esp
:004010B7 83C4F4 add esp, FFFFFFF4
:004010BA 6AF5 push FFFFFFF5

* Reference To: KERNEL32.GetStdHandle, Ord:013Dh
|
:004010BC E869000000 Call 0040112A
:004010C1 8945FC mov dword ptr [ebp-04], eax
:004010C4 FF7508 push [ebp+08]
:004010C7 E820000000 call 004010EC
:004010CC 8945F4 mov dword ptr [ebp-0C], eax
:004010CF 6A00 push 00000000
:004010D1 8D45F8 lea eax, dword ptr [ebp-08]
:004010D4 50 push eax
:004010D5 FF75F4 push [ebp-0C]
:004010D8 FF7508 push [ebp+08]
:004010DB FF75FC push [ebp-04]

* Reference To: KERNEL32.WriteFile, Ord:02B9h
|
:004010DE E84D000000 Call 00401130
:004010E3 8B45F8 mov eax, dword ptr [ebp-08]
:004010E6 C9 leave
:004010E7 C20400 ret 0004

:004010EA CC int 03
:004010EB CC int 03

* Referenced by a CALL at Address:
|:004010C7 
|
:004010EC 55 push ebp
:004010ED 8BEC mov ebp, esp
:004010EF 53 push ebx
:004010F0 8B4508 mov eax, dword ptr [ebp+08]
:004010F3 8D5003 lea edx, dword ptr [eax+03]

* Referenced by a (U)nconditional or (C)onditional Jump at Address:
|:0040110B(C)
|
:004010F6 8B18 mov ebx, dword ptr [eax]
:004010F8 83C004 add eax, 00000004
:004010FB 8D8BFFFEFEFE lea ecx, dword ptr [ebx+FEFEFEFF]
:00401101 F7D3 not ebx
:00401103 23CB and ecx, ebx
:00401105 81E180808080 and ecx, 80808080
:0040110B 74E9 je 004010F6
:0040110D F7C180800000 test ecx, 00008080
:00401113 7506 jne 0040111B
:00401115 C1E910 shr ecx, 10
:00401118 83C002 add eax, 00000002

* Referenced by a (U)nconditional or (C)onditional Jump at Address:
|:00401113(C)
|
:0040111B D0E1 shl cl, 1
:0040111D 1BC2 sbb eax, edx
:0040111F 5B pop ebx
:00401120 C9 leave
:00401121 C20400 ret 0004

* Referenced by a CALL at Address:
|:00401091 
|

* Reference To: KERNEL32.ExitProcess, Ord:0075h
|
:00401124 FF2508204000 Jmp dword ptr [00402008]

* Referenced by a CALL at Address:
|:004010BC 
|

* Reference To: KERNEL32.GetStdHandle, Ord:013Dh
|
:0040112A FF2500204000 Jmp dword ptr [00402000]

* Referenced by a CALL at Address:
|:004010DE 
|

* Reference To: KERNEL32.WriteFile, Ord:02B9h
|
:00401130 FF2504204000 Jmp dword ptr [00402004]

* Reference To: USER32.wsprintfA, Ord:02A5h
|
:00401136 FF2510204000 Jmp dword ptr [00402010]
:0040113C 00000000000000000000 BYTE 10 DUP(0)

------------------------------------------------------------------
MASM 6.x 新增指令列表: Glow Glove 制 (请体谅小弟辛苦,勿消去)

MASM 6.x 推出以久,但市面上有关之书籍及资料却少得可怜,小弟当初接触
MASM 6.x 时,辛辛苦苦才找出资料的,为了那些後进不用踏著先烈的血迹前
扑後继,特将小弟「翻」出来的东东公布出来。

这些指令都是小弟从书上(厚颜无耻,在老板的白眼下辛苦抄下来的)
及MASM 6.0 之范例程式中翻出来的,若有遗落疏失,请包涵。
请体谅小弟之辛苦,勿将小弟的ID消去。

MASM 6.x与MASM 5.x最大不同,在於6.x 比5.x 更高阶化了(或说更PASCAL化),
其内提供了判断、回圈、模组化副程式等,各种令组合语言使用者望穿秋水之指
令,看完内容,请不要感动的痛哭流涕,或恨他为什麽不早点出来。

运算符号:
== : 等於 & : 位元测试
!= : 不等於 ! : 否 NOT
> : 大於 && : 且 AND
< : 小於 || : 或 OR

辅助运算符号:
ZERO? : ZERO ZF=1,ZR !ZERO? : NOT ZERO ZF=0,NZ
CARRY? : CARRY CF=1,CY !CARRY? : NOT CARRY CF=0,NC
OVERFLOW? : OVERFLOW,OV !OVERFLOW? : NOT OVERFLOW,NV
SIGN? : NEGATIVE,NG !SIGN? : PLUS,PL
PARITY? : PARITY EVEN,PE !PARITY? : PARITY ODD,PO

Examples:
.IF AX == 1 .REPEAT
.IF ZERO? .UNTIL ZERO?
.IF !(AX & 0Fh)
.IF AL=ESC || AL=CR
看到这些指令了吗? 是不是似曾相识,期待以久了。

判断式:
.IF
.
.ELSEIF
.
.ELSE
.
.ENDIF

.ELSEIF 及.ELSE 为非必要之动作,写过高阶语言的应该不难了解才对!

回圈指令:
(1) 前测式:
.WHILE
.
.
.ENDW
当条件成立,即执行回圈内,否则执行回圈後之动作

(2) 後测式:
1. .REPEAT
.
.
.UNTIL
or
2. .REPEAT
.
.
.UNTILCXZ

1. 回圈一直到条件成立即停止回圈
2. 同1 ,但加上判断CX是否为0 (OR的关系,即条件为真或CX==0)

辅助指令:
.BREAK
.COUNTINE

配合上述回圈指令运用
.BREAK 可中止回圈
.COUNTINE 可跳至回圈开头
可在其後加上叙述,叙述成立才动作

嗯! 愈看愈像PASCAL了

Examples:

.WHILE AX==1 || !ZERO? .REPEAT
. .
.ENDW .UNTIL (AX & 1)

.REPEAT
.
.BREAK .IF ZERO?
.
.COUNTINE
.
.UNTILCXZ (DX == 0)

引申:
上述之判断式及回圈,其实就是CMP XX,YY
Jxx xxxx,LOOPxx xxxx
之组合。

其内动作复杂,小弟写不出来 :~~( 请写过MASM 5.x的人自行体会那种复杂的古老方式。

以上内容为:MASM 6.x 新增指令列表: Glow Glove 制 (请体谅小弟辛苦,勿消去)