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DShow中实现抓图的几种方法
文章来源:csdn 作者:dankes

1.加入Sample Grabber Filter

  当我们加入Sample Grabber Filter的时候,我们可以直接调用其接口(interface)ISampleGrabber。该接口可以获取经过该Filter的单独的Media Samples。详情请参见DXSDK。

  1.1 派生出自己的Sample Grabber

  从ISampleGrabberCB中派生出自己的类,然后实现其虚函数,详情请参见SDK中的示例程序(DXSDK ROOT\Samples\C++\DirectShow\Editing\GrabBitmaps)。

  1.2 直接调用Sample Grabber Filter的接口

  如果我们在播放的过程中动态的加入Filter的话,操作和效率都不乐观。所以我采用下面的方法:

  该方法传递的是时间,不是在播放的时候动态加入Filter然后截图,而是另外打开源文件进行操作。

  A)申明以下接口:

#001 IGraphBuilder   *pGraph       = NULL; //for graph builder
#002 IMediaControl   *pControl     = NULL; //media control
#003 IMediaSeeking   *pSeeking     = NULL; //media seeking
#004 IMediaEventEx   *pEvent       = NULL; //media envent
#005 IBaseFilter      *pNullFilter =NULL;//for holding the Sample grabber Filter

  B)初始化接口:

#001 JIF(CoCreateInstance(CLSID_FilterGraph, NULL, CLSCTX_INPROC,
#002                  IID_IGraphBuilder, (void **)&pGraph));
#003
#004 JIF(CoCreateInstance(CLSID_NullRenderer, NULL, CLSCTX_INPROC,
#005                 IID_IBaseFilter, (void **)&pNullFilter));
#006 JIF(pGraph->QueryInterface(IID_IMediaControl,(void                                     **)&pControl));
#007 JIF(pGraph->QueryInterface(IID_IMediaSeeking, (void                                **)&pSeeking));
#008 JIF(pGraph->QueryInterface(IID_IMediaEvent, (void                                  **)&pEvent));

  C)创建Sample Grabber

#001 // Create the Sample Grabber.
#002 IBaseFilter *pGrabberF = NULL;
#003 JIF(CoCreateInstance(CLSID_SampleGrabber,NULL, CLSCTX_INPROC_SERVER,
#004                             IID_IBaseFilter, (void**)&pGrabberF));
#005
#006 JIF(pGraph->AddFilter(pGrabberF, L"Sample Grabber"));
#007 JIF(pGraph->AddFilter(pNullFilter, L"Null Render Filter"));
#008
#009 ISampleGrabber *pGrabber;
#010 JIF(pGrabberF->QueryInterface(IID_ISampleGrabber, (void**)&pGrabber));

  设置Sample Grabber的媒体格式:调用SetMediaType,该函数接受一个AM_MEDIA_TYPE的结构,主要是设置该结构中的majortype,和subtype域。

  D)添加Source Filter:

#001 IBaseFilter *pSrc;
#002 JIF(pGraph->AddSourceFilter(T2W(m_szFile), L"Source", &pSrc));

  E)连接Grabber 和 NullRender两个Filter:

#001 IPin  *pOutPin;
#002 hr = GetPin(pGrabberF, PINDIR_OUTPUT, &pOutPin);
#003
#004 IPin  *pInPin;
#005 hr = GetPin(pNullFilter, PINDIR_INPUT, &pInPin);
#006
#007 pGraph->Connect(pOutPin, pInPin);

  F)取得当前所连接媒体的类型

#001 AM_MEDIA_TYPE mt;
#002 hr = pGrabber->GetConnectedMediaType(&mt);
#003 // Examine the format block.
#004 VIDEOINFOHEADER *pVih;
#005 if ((mt.formattype == FORMAT_VideoInfo) &&
#006       (mt.cbFormat >= sizeof(VIDEOINFOHEADER)) &&
#007       (mt.pbFormat != NULL) )
#008 {
#009       pVih = (VIDEOINFOHEADER*)mt.pbFormat;
#010 }
#011 else
#012 {
#013       // Wrong format. Free the format block and return an error.
#014       FreeMediaType(mt);
#015       return VFW_E_INVALIDMEDIATYPE;
#016 }
#017
#018 // Do buffer the samples as they pass through
#019 //
#020 hr = pGrabber->SetBufferSamples(TRUE);
#021
#022 // Only grab one at a time, stop stream after
#023 // grabbing one sample
#024 //
#025 hr = pGrabber->SetOneShot( TRUE );

  G)Seeking文件,使其到达要截图的时间帧

#001 pSeeking->SetPositions(pCurrentPos,
#002                     AM_SEEKING_AbsolutePositioning,
#003                      NULL, AM_SEEKING_NoPositioning );
#004
#005 pControl->Run();
#006
#007 long EvCode = 0;
#008
#009 hr = pEvent->WaitForCompletion( INFINITE, &EvCode );

  H)取得当前的buffer数据

#001 // Find the required buffer size.
#002 long cbBuffer = 0;
#003 hr = pGrabber->GetCurrentBuffer(&cbBuffer, NULL);
#004 LONGLONG currentPos;
#005 pSeeking->GetCurrentPosition(&currentPos);
#006 BYTE *pBuffer = new BYTE[cbBuffer];
#007 if (!pBuffer)
#008 {
#009   // Out of memory. Return an error code.
#010   Msg("Out of Memory");
#011 }
#012 hr = pGrabber->GetCurrentBuffer(&cbBuffer, (long*)pBuffer);

  I)写入文件

#001 // Create a file to hold the bitmap
#002 HANDLE hf = CreateFile(szFilename, GENERIC_WRITE, FILE_SHARE_READ,
#003                                NULL, CREATE_ALWAYS, NULL, NULL );
#004
#005 if( hf == INVALID_HANDLE_VALUE )
#006 {
#007       // Failed to create file
#008       return 0;
#009 }
#010  
#011 // Write out the file header
#012 //
#013 BITMAPFILEHEADER bfh;
#014 memset( &bfh, 0, sizeof( bfh ) );
#015 bfh.bfType = 'MB';
#016 bfh.bfSize = sizeof( bfh ) + cbBuffer + sizeof( BITMAPINFOHEADER );
#017 bfh.bfOffBits =                                 sizeof(BITMAPINFOHEADER)+sizeof( BITMAPFILEHEADER );
#018  
#019 DWORD Written = 0;
#020 WriteFile( hf, &bfh, sizeof( bfh ), &Written, NULL );
#021  
#022 // Write the bitmap format
#023 //
#024 BITMAPINFOHEADER bih;
#025 memset( &bih, 0, sizeof( bih ) );
#026 bih.biSize = sizeof( bih );
#027 bih.biWidth = pVih->bmiHeader.biWidth;
#028 bih.biHeight = pVih->bmiHeader.biHeight;
#029 bih.biPlanes = pVih->bmiHeader.biPlanes;
#030 bih.biBitCount = pVih->bmiHeader.biBitCount;
#031
#032 Written = 0;
#033
#034 WriteFile( hf, &bih, sizeof( bih ), &Written, NULL );
#035
#036 // Write the bitmap bits
#037 //
#038 Written = 0;
#039 WriteFile( hf, pBuffer, cbBuffer, &Written, NULL );
#040 FreeMediaType(mt);
#041 CloseHandle(hf);

  J)释放资源

#001 pControl->Stop(); 
#002 SAFE_RELEASE(pControl);
#003 SAFE_RELEASE(pSeeking);
#004 SAFE_RELEASE(pEvent);
#005 SAFE_RELEASE(pSrc);
#006 SAFE_RELEASE(pNullFilter);
#007 SAFE_RELEASE(pGrabber);
#008 SAFE_RELEASE(pGrabberF);
#009 SAFE_RELEASE(pGraph);

  K)其实我们可以不用NullRender,而是用IVideoWindow接口来实现。如果是那样的话,首先申明IVideoWindow *pVideo = NULL;将pVideo加入到Filter Graph中

#001 JIF(pGraph->QueryInterface(IID_IVideoWindow,(void**)&pVideo));
#002 hr = pGraph->Render(pOutPin);
#003 if (pVideo)
#004 {
#005         hr = pVideo->put_AutoShow(OAFALSE);
#006 }

 通过IBasicVideo::GetCurrentImage接口

  对于该接口,Video Renderer和Video Mixing Renderer(VMR)有不同的实现。

  A)Video Renderer

  如果该Renderer使用了DDraw加速的话,该调用会失败。在调用该接口的时候,必须首先暂停Renderer(可以通过IMediaControl::Pause()暂停,如果不能确信该操作是否成功,应该调用IMediaControl::GetState()判断状态)。

  B)Video Mixing Renderer

  对于VMR,该方法都会成功(不管是否运用了DDraw加速,也不管是否是暂停状态),此时对于它所有的状态(running, stopped, or paused)都适用。

  函数Grabber代码如下(调用该函数的时候应该先将媒体文件暂停,原因上面已经说了):

#001 bool Grabber(IBasicVideo mBasicVideo, TCHAR *szFilename)
#002 {
#003   if (mBasicVideo)
#004   {
#005       long bitmapSize = 0;
#006   if(SUCCEEDED(mBasicVideo->GetCurrentImage(&bitmapSize, 0)))
#007       {
#008          //if语句里面的操作时取得buffer的size。
#009          //当我们在布确定image buffer的大小的情况下,我们给
#010       //GetCurrentImage的第二个参数传递0或者NULL,取得buffer的
#011          //大小供以后使用。
#012          bool pass = false;
#013          unsigned char * buffer = new unsigned char[bitmapSize];
#014 if(SUCCEEDED(mBasicVideo->GetCurrentImage(&bitmapSize,(long*)buffer)))
#015          {
#016              //此时已经用到刚才所取得的大小(分配空间)
#017              BITMAPFILEHEADER  hdr;    //Bitmap的头信息
#018              LPBITMAPINFOHEADER   lpbi; // Bitmap的文件信息(包括数据)
#019
#020              lpbi = (LPBITMAPINFOHEADER)buffer;
#021
#022              int nColors = 1 << lpbi->biBitCount;
#023              if (nColors > 256)
#024                 nColors = 0;
#025
#026              hdr.bfType    = ((WORD) ('M' << 8) | 'B');    //always is "BM"
#027              hdr.bfSize    = bitmapSize + sizeof( hdr );
#028              hdr.bfReserved1   = 0;
#029              hdr.bfReserved2   = 0;
#030              hdr.bfOffBits     = (DWORD) (sizeof(BITMAPFILEHEADER) + lpbi->biSize
#031              CFile bitmapFile(outFile, CFile::modeReadWrite | CFile::modeCreate | CFile::typeBinary);
#032              bitmapFile.Write(&hdr, sizeof(BITMAPFILEHEADER));
#033              bitmapFile.Write(buffer, bitmapSize);
#034              bitmapFile.Close();
#035              pass = true;
#036          }
#037          delete [] buffer; //数据用过之后记得要释放空间
#038          return true;
#039       }
#040   }
#041  
#042   return false;
#043 }

  IMediaDet接口

  IMediaDet接口可以取得媒体文件的信息。SDK里面的示例代码(没有写入文件):

#001 long size;
#002 //取得图像帧的大小,给GetBitmapBits的第三个参数传递0 or NULL
#003 hr = pDet->GetBitmapBits(0, &size, 0, width, height);
#004 if(SUCCEEDED(hr))
#005 {
#006   char *pBuffer = new char[size];
#007   if(!pBuffer)
#008   {
#009       return E_OUTOFMEMORY;
#010   }
#011  
#012   try
#013   {
#014       hr = pDet->GetbitmapsBits(0, 0, pBuffer, width, height);
#015   }
#016   catch(...)
#017   {
#018       delete [] pBuffer;
#019       throw;
#020   }
#021  
#022   if(SUCCEEDED(hr))
#023   {
#024       BITMAPINFOHEADER *bmih = (BITMAPINFOHEADER*)pBuffer;
#025       HDC    hdcDest = GetDC(0);
#026      
#027       //Find the address of the start of the image data
#028       void *pData = pBuffer + sizeof(BITMAPINFOHEADER);
#029      
#030       //Note: In general a BITMAPINFOHEADER can include extra color
#031       //information at the end, so calculating the offset to the image
#032       //data i snot generally correct. However, the IMediaDet interface
#033       //always returns an RGB-24 image with no extra color information
#034         
#035       BITMAPINFO bmi;
#036       ZeroMemory(&bmi, sizeof(BITMAPINFO));
#037       CopyMemory(&(bmi.bmiHeader), bmih, sizeof(BITMAPINFOHEADER));
#038       HBITMAP hBitmap = CreateDIBitmap(hdcDect, bmih, CBM_INIT,
#039                     pData, &bmi, DIB_RGB_COLORS);
#040   }
#041  
#042   delete [] pBuffer;
#043 }

  该方法并没有写入bitmap,具体的写入过程可以参加上面的几种方法。

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